The term “ecotoxicology” was first coined in 1969 by R. Truhaut, who defined it as a science describing the toxic effects of various agents on living organisms, especially on populations and communities within ecosystems. The essence of ecotoxicology lies in two main areas: a study of the environment, with origins in the science of ecology; and a study of the interactions of toxic chemicals with individual living organisms-the science of toxicology.
A basic model of environmental pollution is a convenient way for studying and appreciating environmental pollution. So according this model all pollution events have certain characteristics in common: all involve 1. the pollutant, 2. the source of the pollutant, 3. the transport medium ( air, water or soil) and 4. the target (the organisms, ecosystems or items of property affected by the pollutant). The various components of this model are considered in the course.
The organisms according their availability accumulate heavy metals. In this section of the course several texts to evaluate metal bioavailability are discussed. The importance of the use of different organisms as biomonitors in monitoring programmers is also discussed.
Chemical can cause ecological stress through large complex landscape in a variety of ways, and cause changes in spatial, structural, and functional components of landscapes. Recently two approaches are considered: a retrospective approach, which assesses the levels of chemicals in the environment and uses this information to determine their potential past, present and future impacts. The second one, in contrast, seeks to predict the impact of chemicals through prospective studies. During the course a number of different types of landscape indicators in ecotoxicology, are presented recognizing the newness of this area of research.
The bioremediation technologies have led to the cleanup of many polluted groundwater and soils. This course gives an overview of the basic principles of biodegradation and shows how those principles relate to bioremediation.